8989. Vilpou, E. May 15. Brakes.-A semicircular knife blade b is pivoted on supports i on the permanent way, and is connected to the ordinary semaphore signal, points, crossing-gate, &c., so that, when the signal &c. is set adversely, the knife is in position to sever the cord c, Fig. 4, of an apparatus mounted on the locomotive or on a carriage. When the signal &c. is correctly set, the knife occupies the position shown in dotted lines, Fig. 3, and is then inoperative. The cord c, when cut, releases the spring- controlled or weighted lever e, which then, by completing an electric circuit between the contacts f, or otherwise, effects the operation of the whistle or other audible or visible signal on the engine &c. In addition to, or in lieu of, operating the signal, the lever may apply the brakes.